Sunday, December 28, 2014

tentang KAMU


Tuhan,
dalam doaku
aku hanya berharap satu tentang dirinya
ciptaanmu yang kini mengisi hari, fikiran dan harapanku.
Tuhan,
aku hanya berharap
aku tak pernah salah memilihnya
dan jika pilihan itu salah,
aku hanya berharap itu adalah kesalahan terindah
yang takkan pernah ku sesali

Monday, December 22, 2014


Tuhan...
aku adalah malam
meski malamku adalah siang
malam itu terang
sedang siang.. gelap tanpa bintang
dalam bayang siang, aku mencari celah menerobos cahaya malam yang hangat akan pelukan
dalam malam, aku lupa bahwa siang akan menjemput bintang kembali keperaduan,
aku menyesal...

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Bukan Ying dan Yang


aku adalah malam
dan kau adalah siang
tanpamu aku kelam

ya, aku adalah malam
dan kau adalah siang
kita memang diciptakan berpasangan
sayangnya, kita tidak ditakdirkan hidup berdampingan

aku adalah malam
dan kau adalah
siang,
ya...kau adalah siang
siangku
cahayaku

Monday, December 15, 2014

Tuhan adalah Sastrawan


Tuhan tidak perlu kata untuk menjelaskan apa yg Dia dengar, karena Tuhan tidak bodoh
aku tidak perlu menyembunyikan makna dalam kata,
tidak jua menyamarkan puja dan pujiku dalam eja,
karena memang aku tak bisa
aku tak berfilosofis,
aku hanya hamba yang ingin memuja Tuhannya,
dengan segala keterbatasan yang ku punya,
ku kagumi ketidakterbatanNya, ke Maha segalaanNya
apa salah jika aku berkata, Tuhanku adalah Sastrawan?
Jelas bukan???
Tuhan saja tahu

Malang, December 15, 2014

Friday, December 12, 2014

it still needs to paraphrase, revise and edit guys =)


RESEARCH PROPOSAL
THE ANALYSIS ON MARIA’S MORAL REASONING IN PAULO COELHO’S 11 MINUTES THROUGH LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY
By:
Nimatul Ulya
11320107

Supervisor:
Dr. Syamsudin, S. Hum




ENGLISH LETTERS AND LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF HUMANITIES
THE STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
MAULANA MALIK IBRAHIM MALANG
2014


Proposal Title
THE ANALYSIS ON MARIA’S MORAL REASONING IN PAULO COELHO’S 11 MINUTES THROUGH LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY
Name                           : Nimatul Ulya
NIM                            : 11320107
Department                 : English Letters and Language Department
Faculty                        : Humanities


Malang, December 13, 2014
Approved by                                                   Acknowledge by
The Advisor,                                      The Head of the English Letters and Language Department,
Dr. Syamsudin, S. Hum  Dr. Syamsudin, S. Hum                      


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
A.    Background of The Study
11 Minutes is a different novel ever produced by Paulo Coelho, of which he commonly produces inspiring and motivating novels. In 2003, the author of The Alchemist Novel audaciously published 11 Minutes, a novel that was mentioned by Paulo in his novel before beginning the story (2002) as a hard, difficult, and sensational novel. Even though considered as a controversial work, about prostitute and sex, the writer argued that the novel contains a number of life moral values. By precise diction, Paulo who now 67 years old, is capable to rise the positive side from the taboo object as a lesson for the readers by dilemma happened on Maria within solving her life problems.
Paulo Coelho puts Maria as the main object who is merely told in the story of  Eleven Minutes. Maria is the point of the novel where Paulo conveyed his meaning sense on the Maria’s character; holy-sex, love, struggle, moral, choice and reality. Maria is a daughter of a poor family where her father works only as a salesman while her mother is a tailor. She lives in an outlying area in Brazil, so far from the noise city. Maria is a plain beautiful Brazilian girl who always dreams can leave her home, meet a handsome man, get married with him, have babies and family, and be happy forever. Unfortunately, the life is not as easy as she thinks in which finally brought her into prostitute world. (Coelho, 2003)
In Maria’s life journey, in order to reach her purposes, Maria was excessively conduced a lots of complicated problem requiring her to choose between her desirability, love, dream, hope, family, or prestige. One day, she was ever in deep regret after losing her first love after she was wrong to judge. Only then, Maria bravely chose to be a Brazilian dancer in a big city she never knows before. She did decide it because of her thought about dream and hope come from both herself and her family. A hard moral judgment must be taken when she faced a dilemma, whether she had to be a prostitute to realize all dreams of hers, or going back to home with nothing coyly. Last about love, she always tried to avoid her true love with many reasons, while she was really loved a painter namely Ralf and sometimes cannot cover the feeling. (Coelho, 2003)
Historically, Maria seems having herself out with the life trouble requiring her to elective two complicated choices having the same big risk for her life. A perplexity happened on Maria to settle the problems as a judgment includes into a form of dilemma. Additionally, dilemma is considered to have a tight relevancy with the psychology. Kohlberg (1927) demonstrated in his book, The Psychology of Moral Development, that Hypothetical dilemmas means when people are in a turbulence situation and finally devide some ways to do where the real meaning of rights and duties are both realized in a real situation by individual characteristic. Apparenlty, there is relation between the way people think about rights and duties as a moral judgment and the way people realize in a real life as a moral actions.
Meanwhile, the researcher regards the reality above as an issue necessary to examine, in order to detect psychological moral reasoning of Maria’s actions. It is because Moral reasoning according to Haidt as mentioned in Paxton and Greene (2010) is conscious activity mentally to send received information about human within the purpose to achieve into such form of moral judgment. Meanwhile, it is defined as a situation where a moral judgment is influenced by any possibility of any conscious thought process (about people) for Paxton and Greene (2010). Therefore, everything done by Maria of course there is the moral reasoning underlying her judgment.
Basically, main characters are always talked about in the story, they are merely related to other characters. So, main characters extremely establish the plot’s development in whole, because, characters become a determiner of development of plot. Moreover, characterization becomes a significant in case of determining both wholeness and artistic of a fiction notwithstanding characterization must be with other aspects to catch the totally in a story. (Nurgiyantoro, 2005) 
Therefore, understanding  psychological aspect of the characters in the novel, notably the main character will extremely help in understanding the novel comprehensively. Moreover, Maria is a main character in 11 Minutes, of course her psychological aspect will affect to the way of the story telling in the novel. Evidently the novel pointed out Maria and her life as the main object enlarged upon the novel. Hence, Maria’s Psychological aspect becomes prominent thing to analyze.
In that point, the researcher is convinced to analyze Coelho’s 11 Minutes Novel using Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning Theory. So, a kind of moral action can be grasped by finding out his/ her reasoning. However, moral reasoning belongs to Kohlberg is judgements whether something is right or wrong, in which grounded on the use of moral dilemmas where a hard decision must be made by man. Notwithstanding, it does not mean that each action of man means a form of moral that is always caused by someone’s assumption as moral (Kohlberg, 1927). DeLuca (2011) told in his article that Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development provides an explicit structure for moral reasoning and decision making. In the fact, Lawrence Kohlberg advanced his theory from the two point of view of psychology and philosophy. Kohlberg as cited in Endicotta, Bockb, Narvaezb (2003) indicated there are six stages of moral reasoning in three broader levels as the individual’s socio-moral perspective basic changes, after doing far-ranging interviews about moral dilemmas on children and adults.
By using Lawrence’s Moral Reasoning Theory, the writer aims to show the moral reasoning underlying Maria’s decisions of every choices faced to solve the problems, especially based on growth of age in which affecting her emotional and rational maturity. Someone’s reasoning is needed to understanding in order to clarify moral action (Kohlberg, 1927). Because, Kohlberg (1927) mentioned that moral action is determined not only by judgments of deontic justice (e.g., rights and contracts) but by follow-through judgments of responsibility in a particular situations. Thus, what significantly must be analyzes the situation where Maria doing something because she needed to, or wanted to, or other reason she had.
The research that will be committed, is built on the previous studies that was done by some researchers in some universities in Indonesia. First is An Analysis of Maria’s Struggle for A Better Life as Seen in Paulo Coelho’s Eleven Minutes written by Chatarin Setyatuti Wiedaninggat (2008). This criticism only focused on the two problems; the characterization of Maria and the way Maria sacrifice to make her life more prosperous. She executed the study by seizing on Library research with psychological approach included inside. This criticism also used other theories such theory of motivation, theory of critical approach, and theory of characterization.
Next criticism was done by Eiyla Henimasari (2010) entitled A Psychological Approach in Obsession of Main Character in Paulo Coelho’s Eleven Minutes. Henimasari driven at discovering what Maria’s obsession and psychological aspects causing her to become a prostitute. It was done by using various literary theories; character, concept of psychological aspect on prostitute, the obsession theory and the success and failure theory.
The last previous study is Maria’s Struggle through Boundary Situations to be Authentic Individual in Paulo Coelho’s 11 Minutes Novel written by Afida Rosdiana Ningrum (2013). Ningrum did the study exactly at human existence in Eleven Minutes of which demonstrate Maria’s efforts as the main character to get the authentic for her. In that case, Ningrum analyze it by applying existentialism approach, Ningrum analyzed Maria’s efforts to get the authentic for her.
In the end, beside of utilizing a diverge theory from the previous studies, this criticism solely empathizes Maria’s moral reasoning seen from the development of moral thinking along with the age growth by Moral Reasoning Theory of Lawrence Kohlberg. In that point, Maria’s moral reasoning is reputed to affect the moral judgment in which finally will also affect how the story runs that made 11 Minutes interesting to read. This criticism explicitly purposes on the moral reasoning of Maria’s decision, by the title of the study: An Analysis on Maria’s Moral Reasoning in Paulo Coelho’s 11 Minutes through Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory.
B.  Research Questions
According to the explanation stated in the background of the study, the researcher discovers some problems as follows:
1.      What are Maria’s problems causing dilemma in her life?
2.      How does Maria solve her problems faced?
C.  Objective of The Study
Based on the research questions above, it is found that the aims by conducting this study are:
1.      To find out Maria’s problems caused dilemma in her life
2.      To find out the way Maria solves her problems faced
D.  Scope and Limitation
The fundamental material worked through in this study is merely about how Maria solves her problem based on the moral reasoning of Maria, in terms of each decision she took. Yet, it is only taken in some significant parts of 11 Minutes Novel. However, be side of Maria’s moral reasoning is discussed; this criticism will start with discussing the problem. Finitely, this study ignored other aspects out of Maria’s moral reasoning even that also includes into part of the way Maria solves her problems. Other ignored aspects that has no discussion in this criticism are love story, need, all characters existed in the novel, also other aspect of Maria’s psychology. To this point, the researcher intends to concern with moral reasoning of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory that has been grouped into 3 levels with 2 stages for each stage by stage chronologically.
E.  Significance of The Study
Referring to the benefits of the criticism theoretically, the researcher expects to make this analysis useful for literary criticism, especially which related with both Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning Theory and Paulo’s 11 Minutes Novel. Anyway, this study expected in prospect to provide believable information in order to develop literary scientific treasure toward better literary advancement. Conducting this analysis practically lectures the researcher about the life moral values. The researcher learns that human’s doing something that can be assumed as right wrong by common society, factually strength of many motif that can rise from the moral environment or from his/ her own soul. Hence, no judge for anything may be done by humans, no wrong, no right, because there is a moral reasoning beyond those actions that likely can opposite everything. Those are the lesson that generally taken by the researcher by committing this literary critic.
F.   Research Method
1.    Research Design
This analysis would turn to account literary criticism as the method of the study. It is reputed collateral as Brennan Breed’s statement (2009) in Reading Glasses: Literary Criticism about Bible scholars. It can be concluded above literary criticism that this new method discusses what a work meant and functioned, as literary works.
Because of this analysis properly included into psycho-analysis, the researcher would like to apply moral reasoning theory of Kohlberg that concerns about three level with 2 kinds for each that will underlie someone’s moral judgment in terms of its development herewith age, like what said by Kohlberg (after Kohlberg, 1969) as mentioned in Smith, Bem, and Hoeksema. Level one is Pre-conventional Morality level which has two kinds; punishment orientation and reward orientation. Second, conventional morality also consisting two kinds; whether the child chooses to be good boy/girl orientation or authority orientation. Lastly, social contact orientation or ethical principle orientation, which included into Post conventional morality level.
2.    Data Source
The data source of this study is the novel, 11 Minutes, one of Paulo Coelho’s works. 11 Minutes is originally written in Portuguese language. However, during this process of analysis, the researcher would utilize 11 Minutes Novel translated by Margaret Jull Costa, published by HarperCollins publisher, Hammersmith, London. It has 294 pages. It was the first published in English by HarperCollins Publishers in 2003.
3.    Data Collection
In collecting the data, the researcher would like to perform some steps heading for finishing the study. The researcher starts to read the novel several times, while reading other sources discussing the novel and from internet. It is done in order to understand the context deeply. After reading comprehensiply to grasp the context, the researcher strats to take every problems rises dilemma for Maria. Also, taking every kinds of moral reasoning of the problems above. Also, finding  the way how Maria solves the problems stated. Last step to collect the data is classifying all data above into 3 categories properly based on 3 levels of moral reasoning belongs to Kohlberg; pre-conventional morality, conventional morality, and post conventional morality. The researcher also supports the data source with other data derived from libraries and other sources (such as internet).
4.    Data Analysis
This criticism is solely in the scope of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning toward the main character of 11 Minutes Novel, Maria. On that ground, some steps would like to be employed in conducting the analysis. After collecting the data needed, then, the data would be classified ground on the age of Maria. Secondly, the researcher do interpret upon the data taken thoroughly from the problems, the way Maria solves the problem, and the moral reasoning that had been classified before, by the measure of the theory used, Kohlberg’s moral reasoning. Lastly, it is taking conclusion after deep analyzing toward the main character of 11 minutes Novel, about problems and moral reasonings of Maria.
5.    Definition of Key Terms
Giving the definition of the key terms based on the researcher’s pretention is necessary in order to compare the researcher’s comprehension with the reader’s toward the words using in this criticism. Those are:
-       Moral Reasoning
Kohlberg (1927) defined moral reasoning as judgements about right and wrong.
-       Judgment
Judgment according dictionary.com is the ability to judge, make a decision, or form an opinion objectively, authoritatively, and wisely, especially in matters affecting action; good sense; and discretion (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/judgment?s=t)
-       Pre-conventional morality
McLeod (2013) explained the pre-conventional level is a time where children who are about nine years old do not have a power, they only reason based on the physical consequences of actions to follow or break that are given by older people.
-       Conventional morality
the conventional level is when adolescents and adults starts to generalize the moral standarts grounded on norms of the group where the person live. (McLeod, 2013)
-       Post-conventional morality
Post-conventional morality is a human situation when moral reasoning is based on Individual judgment aboout rights and justice. (McLeod, 2013)


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, the theories applied in supporting the arrangement this thesis is discussed in depth and detail. The discussion is built on Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning. The written data are taken from some works of Lawrence Kohlberg, together with several materials related to the topic of this criticism.
2.1 Psychology and Literature
Zaimar (2003) assumed that in the recent 20 century, literary theory developed rapidly. A number of theories appeared such as structuralism, semiotic, sociology of literature, psychoanalysis, and so on. In the fact, Minderop (2010) said in his book, Psikologi Sastra, that during twenty century, a number of literary works are studied using pschological approaches, and the most frequently used is the theory of Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalysis here means literary analysis that using psychology as the approach or tool to analyze literary works. Then, psychology applied in literature commonly called as psychology of literature.  
Dudek (1974) told in his paper, Psychology of Literature, that psychology of literature is an output of human mind in which people actually want to know about literature that is produced queerly by the human psychological. Then, it is also talked that literature is defined as anywhat about life and how human decided it. Notwithstanding, psychology is considered as half-science, the psychology can be learnt deeper and further if it is combined with philosophy or theology in which assisting modern mind.
Next definition is conveyed by Wellek and Warren (1948).  Wellek and Warren (1948) instead said that psychology of literature has 4 definitions, are study on an author’s psychic individually, a creative process, the effect on the readers, and study on types and laws (psychological laws applied on literary works). Apparently, the last definition is considered as the most appropriate one to define literary works.
Additionally, Endraswara (2008) as cited in Minderop (2010) also leaded psychology of literature as an inter-discipline between both of psychology and literature. Study of psychology of literature is actually interesting and beautiful, because sides of the depth of psychological humans can be understood clearly, deeply and largely.
After all interpretations before, it can be summarized that the interest of psychology of literature is humans’ problem drawing a psychological snapshot, as written in Psikologi Sastra by Minderop (2010).
In that point Ratna (2003) as cited in Minderop (2010) also supported that statement by delivering the objective of the psychology of literature in which it showed that the psychology of literature aims comprehend the psychological aspects consisted in a literary works.  By understanding the characters, society is able to understand changes, contradictions, and other deviations happen among society, particularly about psychology. There are three manners of grasping the relation between psychology and literature, they are: 1) understanding the author’s psychic as the writer, 2) understanding the fictional characters’ psychic of the novel, and 3) understanding the readers’ psychic.
Basically, psychology of literature pays attention upon the psychological trouble of the fictional characters in the literary work of which Minderop (2010) also stated that, the desire showed by characters, is something that actually must to study using psychological approaches after it is intrinsically studied.
That is caused John Keble as cited in Minderop (2010) argued that the closeness of literary works and psychology is found in case of literary works revealing the satisfaction of conflict motifs, the desire showed by characters to find out the satisfaction imaginatively together with efforts to hide and push down the feeling.
In the end, the writer agrees with Minderop (2010) who said that it is needed to criticize literature using psychology of literature.  That is because Minderop (2010) has a base foundation that in this modern era, literary works; novel, poetry, even drama, are loaded of psychological aspects containing the authors’ , fictional characters’ in the novel, and readers’  psychic. Moreover, Cuddon (1979) as cited in Minderop (2010) talked that kind of fiction which is for most part concerned with the spiritual, emotional, and mental lives of the characters and the analysis focuses on the character rather than with the plot and action, are included into kinds of psychological novel. Furthermore, during the last 200 years many novelists have written psychological novels.
To critize the fictional characters and their characterization in the novel, researchers have to investigate using the theory and law of psychology that concern about human’s attitudes and characters. Theory of psychology that used to apply to analyzing literary works is psychoanalysis belonging to Sigmund Freud.
2.1.2    Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud was considered as the first psychoanalysist, like what was mentioned by Chunnasart (2006) in his article, A study of a farewell to arms as Ernest Hamingway’s autobiographical novel: A Freudian analysis. His thoughts are excessively approved by most of psychological schools. Literary world apparently applies Freud’s concepts in case of declaring the nature of characters which leading to conflicts or climax of the story. Freudian psychological concepts are used to show the covered character’s mind. It means that using psychology to examine literature in order to study and hunt out the truth backside of human’s mind and behavior. That process can be found perfectly in characters, if the characters are assumed, in a different condition and situation, as human beings. It because that all reaction, behavior, attitude, and feeling belonging to fictional character, are also discovered inside of human beings personality (Chunnasart, 2006).
According to Freud (1979), humans’ spirit has three levels of consciousness. Those are:
-       Conscious, it leads everything that humans are aware in a certain condition through the direct sensory perception, memory, perception, thought, fantasy, and feelings.
-       Preconscious, it also defined as the available memory, that is all memory that easily to recall to the consciousness, even, those memories are not remembered when these are thought but can be called easily.
-       Unconscious,  unconscious mind is the biggest part of humans’ spirit. This part is a matter humans are not aware but extremely encourages words, feelings, and humans’ actions. Mental process behind human’ action, that is actually never been aware by humans, even they are aware about each action they do.
 What human beings have such action, behavior, attitude, and feeling, in which are also found inside of fictional characters in novels, of course those are related with personality. In this case, Allport as cited in Sobur (2003) construed personality as the changeable organization of man coming under the psychophysical systems establishing someone’s ways to adapt upon the environment. Anyway, in psychology, it becomes a kind of branch trying to grasp the complex contacts of various matters related to an individual functioning including the aspect of learning, perception and motivation (Pervin, 1984).
Briefly, personality is organization inside of human beings that settle behavior to act. In forming the personality, explicitly environment becomes one of affective aspect. Thus, personality is formed not only from internal aspects of humans naturally but also influenced by external aspects. Even though, it cannot be denied that each human might has diverge personalities.
In terms of Freudian psychological concept, obviously, Freud devided human’s personality becomes three major systems, they are the id, ego, and superego. Mentally, in a normal man, the three systems mold a allied and harmonized composition. Then, they can allow a person to carry on proper transactions with the environment only by cooperative working together. By right, the transactions are aimed to fulfill humans’ basic needs and desires.
Further explanations about three personalities of Freudian psychoanalysis are:
The Id
The id exists inside of humans’ personality since they were born. The id is functioned to fulfill the first principle of humans’ life, such as desires, pleasures, fundamental needs and so on. Dream and recollection of thoughts are also considered as a kind of response to the fundamental needs. Hence, Freud called the id as the pleasure principle (Chunnasart, 2006).
The Ego
The ego is one kind of personality that has a job to control the id and the superego, in which keeping relation with external world in terms of the interest of the total personality and its far-flung need. The ego is based on the reality principle. The reality principle must to prohibit the humans’ action in case of the tension until the tension can be hold out by a proper behavior. Further, the ego can let the dreamers satisfaction to create dreams imaginatively. However, the dreamers are still able to discriminate between both reality and dream. The dreaming can still be told by the dreamers while the fantasies created are functioned as the tool to decrease the tension caused by unfulfilled needs (Chunnasart, 2006).
The Superego
The superego is the moral or judicial part of humans’ personality. It prefers to do the ideal rather than the real, also struggles for getting a perfection rather than for reality or pleasure. The superego substantively becomes humans’ moral code. It works out of the ego as a consequence of the child’s acceptance towards his parents’ standards about what is good and what is bad (Chunnasart, 2006).
These three personalities finally drive individuals to act. Which one of these is winner that will determine how people behave in which might differentiate one to others. That is because, even every individual has the same 3 personalities, but there will be only one that is more leaning that becomes the driver or supporter for each human’s attitude. In that case, the humans of course have the moral reason in each action they take. Still about psychology, that moral reasoning underlying individual’s action usually can be discussed using the theory of moral reasoning belonging to Lawrence Kohlberg
2.2 Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning
Moral reasoning according to Haidt (2001) is conscious activity mentally to send received information about human within the purpose to achieve into such form of moral judgment. Meanwhile, it is defined as a situation where a moral judgment is influenced by any possibility of any conscious thought process (about people) for Paxton and Greene (2010). Then, it means that moral reasoning is humans’ judgment about right or wrong in which sometimes it utters dilemma for the actor.
DeLuca (2011) told in his article that Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development provides an explicit structure for moral reasoning and decision making. Kohlberg as cited in Endicotta, Bockb, Narvaezb (2003) indicated there are six stages of moral reasoning in three broader levels as the individual’s socio-moral perspective basic changes, after doing far-ranging interviews about moral dilemmas on children and adults.
The six stages of Kohlberg’s moral reasoning are included into three bigger levels. Level one is Pre-conventional Morality level which has two kinds; punishment orientation and reward orientation. Second, conventional morality also consisting two kinds; whether the child chooses to be good boy/girl orientation or authority orientation. Lastly, social contact orientation or ethical principle orientation, which included into Post conventional morality level (Kohlberg as mentioned in Smith, Bem, and Hoeksema, 2001).
Peterson (1987) mentioned in his article about Kohlberg who emphasizes that his theory of moral development is merely about the more general process of cognitive development, the process of which humans come to know what they know along with the time runs. Basic assumptions of cognitive development theory grounded on Peterson (1987) are:
1.  Development engages transformations of cognitive formation that cannot be clarify by any theories of learning
2.  Development is a result of interactional processes between the organism and the environment (the process is not immediately formed by either naturally or learning alone)
3.  Cognitive structures are structures of action by which  anything of course have structures of actions upon objects
4.  The direction of development is to the greater balancing in organism-environmental interactions
5.  The main of developmental position is the doctrine of stages, according to Kohlberg.
Then, Peterson (1987) generalized characteristics of developmental stages as:
       At different stages, it is found  the qualitative variances of ways of thinking
       There is a various sequences of each stage
       Different sequential forms of thought mold a structured wholeness
       Cognitive stages are hierarchical unifications.
In the 1950s, Kohlberg did a research engaging young males to see their development for more than twenty years. During this study is running, Kohlberg also educed a theory of moral development that sparks off six separate stages of moral reasoning. In result, most adults, according to Kohlberg, drive in the third, fourth, and fifth stages; only a few ever reach the sixth stage (Daneker, 2010).
Further, the deeper explanation related to the three levels of Kohlberg moral reaoning along with two stages for each, is in the following:
1.    Preconventional level
The preconventional as the first level  are convinced that humans’ moral values appreciated in case of external, quasi-physical happenings, in bad acts, or in quasi-physical needs rather than in case of persons or standards. This level development has two stages stage 1 and 2. Stage 1 is obedience and punishment orientation. Stage 2 is naive egoistic orientation or reward orientation. Right action is that evidently satisfying the self s needs and desire. This orientation solely prioritized to get exchange and reciprocity (Peterson, 1987).
In terms of Kohlberg's first stage of moral reasoning, this obedience and punishment orientation is included into heteronomous morality in which humans act prominently out of their willing to avoid punishments. Something right is nothing other than determined by actions that prevent personal pains or harms. Definitely, the actor is not aware that other people in the society may have different willing from the actors or even create the different views (Daneker, 2010).
Next is naive egoistic orientation or reward orientation. This second stage of moral reasoning is more pragmatic one. The actor in this stage, besides his awareness to the others that might have a different perspective in any situations, thinks that every individual would like to act in order to create maximally their own complacency. Moral legitimacy appears only to chase after someone's interests. Based on Kohlberg, in this stage, it becomes important to keep promises so that so others do to you (Daneker, 2010).
Finally, the preconventional level mostly contains of primary and junior high school students and some few of college students as well. After taking sample of American students, the modal answer was that laws keep the real physical error, loss, and crime. The fundamental of moral judgment of this first level is moral value sited in external, quasi-physical happenings, in bad acts, or in quasi-physical needs rather than in persons or standards (Peterson, 1987).
2.    Conventional level
The conventional is mostly filled out by junior high school students and college students.  This level record that laws lead bad attitudes and direct the weak to behave themselves, that laws protect social order. The conventional level thinks that laws are able to prevent anarchis and how a society can exist without laws (Peterson, 1987).
Furthermore, two stages of development in this level are stage 3 and 4. Stage 3 is good-boy/ nice-girl orientation. It means the orientation to get permission from others and to please others. Then, stage 4 is law and order orientation. Orientation upon doing one's duty in order to indicate feeling respect for authority around the actor and defend the social order for its individual interest, including regard for earned expectations of others (Peterson, 1987).
In the third stage, good-boy/ nice-girl orientation, the humans start to set-up a system relevant with spread moral norms that contains various views and represents social agreement in case of the proper way people should live. The individual who is in this stage definitely prefer to behave appropriately to the societal expectations and follow society's rules, not because those rules and values have any independent justification, but simply because they look to be imposed absolutes (Daneker, 2010).
Kohlberg's fourth stage is namely the law and order stage. In this stage, the individual gives the priority to pay attentions toward needs to maintain the whole sociomoral system. It means that someone obeys rules because the rules are part of a social contract, right and wrong are based on the agreement of the society, in which the majority is the final justification for the imposition of new rules. People in this stage-four are always disposed to the strong loyalty upon the Constitution and statutes not because those create early universal ethical principles, but more because those are as the realizations of a social contract based on majority’s pretentions. Equally, in this stage, personal consensus can be important only because of the utility of that agreement purposed to maintaining a fluency of functioning society. It concerns about procedural justice and impartiality often emerging as central considerations in morality. Finally, an individual operating in stage-four morality might claim that exceptions to the law cannot be g this would lead to totally subjective decisions on the part of the law enforcers.  (Daneker, 2010).
Thus, basis of moral judgment of this level is moral value sited in performing good or right roles, in defending the conventional order and the others’ expectancy. This is regarded as an other directed conceptualization of morality (Peterson, 1987).
3.    Postconventional level
Post-conventional level is convinced that human reason will produce consensuses on a particular rule. In this case, everything might process and runs what looked like. Individual who is in this post-conventional is not imbedded by such "conventional morality", he can feel that individuals who have principle being able to handle their problems well without any compulsion from outside parties that must to bear. The way how people in this level, is little bit different. Human who can achieve this group spade rather few, because who are here are people who think that without laws and there is no a horrible thing would happen. Those at the highest level of moral development no longer saw the state and compulsion authority as requirements for the existence of order (Peterson, 1987).
Further, the moral development in this level consists of next two stages; stage 5 and 6. Stage 5 is Social-contract, legalistic orientation. It means that admissions of an arbitrary element in rules is made for the sake of approval. Duty related to contract is general way to sheer off violations of the the desires or rights of others, the will and welfare of majority. Stage 6 is conscience or principle orientation. It is construed as orientation that not only based on agreed social rules, but also on principles of chosen consideration to logical universality and consistency . This orientation conclude the willing inward (conscience) as the only one true agent and to balance between respects and trusts (Peterson, 1987).
In stage five, people tend to look up the universal values and human rights from the side when it gives a priority to the societal organization. The rightful authority of a social demand becomes valid and occuring when that social order protects the preexisting values. This matter is attended to make a change still I order to maintain fundamental rights.
In the stage six, humans make their perspective more conscious and universal. In this level, stage-five values become a made principle, or namely universal ethical principles, where the actor can apply his/ her beliefs in any situation. These principles are no more based on the social contract but disposed to opinions of trust and community that should beat to any legitimate social contract and run from a fundamental respect to the humanity of others (Daneker, 2010).
Definitely, postconventional is the final level of morality. The moral judgment of individual who is in post-conventional level is shared or shareable standards, rights or duties (Peterson, 1987).
2.3 Biography of Kohlberg
Furthermore, the figure of Moral Reasoning Theory who is famous with his theory namely “The Cognitive-Developmental Theory of Moralization” is Lawrence Kohlberg. Kohlberg was born in 1927. A man who lived in Bronxville, New York for a long time, was a student of the Andover Academy in Massachusetts. Before he went to the University of Chicago in 1948 for continuing his study, he enrolled a volunteer of Israeli case. After finishing his study only in one year, he began to be attracted in Piaget and start to do observation focusing in moral issues of children and adolescents. Finally, he got his doctoral dissertation (1958a), that in the next it becomes the initial of his new stage theory. Kohlberg, who had ever taught in University of Chicago (1962-1968) and Harvard University (after 1986), had worked hard to make many people aware of the wisdom of many of the old psychologists, like Rousseau, John Dewey, and James Mark Baldwin, by thinking of the range issues found between  psychology and philosophy (W.C. Crain, 1985).
2.4       Previous Studies
The research that will be committed is built on the previous studies that were done by some researchers in some universities in Indonesia. First is An Analysis of Maria’s Struggle for A Better Life as Seen in Paulo Coelho’s Eleven Minutes written by Chatarin Setyatuti Wiedaninggat (2008). This criticism only focused on the two problems; the characterization of Maria and the way Maria sacrifice to make her life more prosperous. She executed the study by seizing on Library research with psychological approach included inside. This criticism also used other theories such theory of motivation, theory of critical approach, and theory of characterization.
Next criticism was done by Eiyla Henimasari (2010) entitled A Psychological Approach in Obsession of Main Character in Paulo Coelho’s Eleven Minutes. Henimasari driven at discovering what Maria’s obsession and psychological aspects causing her to become a prostitute. It was done by using various literary theories; character, concept of psychological aspect on prostitute, the obsession theory and the success and failure theory.
The last previous study is Maria’s Struggle through Boundary Situations to be Authentic Individual in Paulo Coelho’s 11 Minutes Novel written by Afida Rosdiana Ningrum (2013). Ningrum did the study exactly at human existence in Eleven Minutes of which demonstrate Maria’s efforts as the main character to get the authentic for her. In that case, Ningrum analyze it by applying existentialism approach, Ningrum analyzed Maria’s efforts to get the authentic for her.


CHAPTER V
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